a. 140 mg/dl (7.8mmol/L)
b. 125 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/L)
c. 110 mg/dl (6.1 mmol/L)
d. 100 mg/dl (5.6 mmol/L)
The correct answer is d. A normal fasting glucose level is between 70 - 100 mg/dl (3.9-5.6 mmol/l) . This level was established by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) in 2003. Previously a cut off point of 110 mg/dl was considered to be normal. Those of you who have had glucose levels in that range and were told that your level was normal should consider getting an updated glucose check.
Levels between 100-125 mg/dl (5.6-7.0 mmol/l) are termed as "impaired fasting glucose". These patients may have a three fold increase in risk of diabetes. Lifestyle changes such as weight loss, physical activity and a low sugar diet are recommended to improve these numbers.
Diabetes is defined as glucose level above 125 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l). The level was reduced from 140 to 125 in 1997. The ADA recommends testing for glucose in all adults with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and one or more additional risk factors for diabetes. There are several risk factors for diabetes. These include age of 45 years or older, body mass index of 25 kg/m2 or higher, family history of diabetes, physical inactivity, ethnicity of African-American, Hispanic, Native American, Asian-American, and Pacific Islanders, delivering a 9 lb or larger baby, high blood pressure (>140/90), abnormal cholesterol level (HDL <35,>250), and polycystic ovary syndrome. In individuals without risk factors, testing should begin at age 45 years.
Video tutorial on diabetes: Dr. Jerold Olefsky.